AMERICAN SHELVES PROJECT
Project at a Glance
American Shelves is a joint project of the Embassy of the USA in Moscow and the National Association of Teachers of English in Russia.
Time of the Project
September, 2010 – May, 2011
1st place - Golovanova Ekaterina (Udmurt State University)
Markova Svetlana (Pomor State University)
2nd place - Vdovichenko Anna (Pomor State University)
3rd place - Churkina Yulia (Pomor State University)
Kashirina Yuliya (Voronezh State University)
Zhuravleva Anastasia (Lomonosov Moscow State University)
Amelina Svetlana Kursk State University
Aziattseva Tatiana Kursk State University
Bukina Valentina Khakas State University
Derevyakhina Dariya Irkutsk State Linguistic University
Galanov Vladislav Voronezh State University
Golubtsova Elena Irkutsk State Linguistic University
Kopeikina Natalia Lomonosov Moscow State University
Lyamina Irina Udmurt State University
Morozova Elena Udmurt State University
Pimenova Oxana Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University
Poltoranin Oleg Surgut State University
Prokhorova Darya Voronezh State University
Shishkova D. Kursk State University
Shurygina Elena Lomonosov Moscow State University
Stolnikova Anna Herzen State Peda-gogical University
Tsybulskaya Elisabeth Moscow Regional State Institute of Humanities
Congratulations to the winners! Thanks to all the participants!
Prizes and certificates will be sent to the Universities in June.
Aim of the Project
The project aims at promoting democratic values, human rights and freedoms, thus contributing to the development of a civil society in the country.
• Introducing American Studies literature into self study activities of the students of Russian Universities
• Motivating students to use American Studies resources in their research work
• Meeting the requirements of Research Paper Documentation (Bibliography Listing and In-text Citation) to avoid plagiarism
Students study the books provided for them (see the list), choose one of the suggested topics, do the research and submit their paper to the Jury. (Papers on the topics chosen by students themselves are also eligible.)
The project is administered by a group of ELT specialists from Voronezh Association of English Language Teachers:
Marina Sternina, Professor, Head of the English Chair for Science Departments of Voronezh State University, NATE Russia Vice-President – project manager
firstname.lastname@example.org tel. # (4732) 24-27-80 (home) (4732) 208-395 (work)
Larisa Kuzmina, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of English for International Relations of Voronezh State University
Irina Vostrikova, Associate Professor of the English Chair for Science Departments of Voronezh State University
September 2010 – October 2010 getting the books from the American Embassy, advertising the titles among University teachers and students
November 2010 – February 2011 choosing the topics for research, writing the papers and presenting them at students’ conferences (the latter is optional)
March 1, 2011 presenting the papers to the University level jury
March 20, 2011 presenting the list of contest participants at the University level and the best papers to the all-Russia jury
May 2011 announcing the results of the contest, giving away prizes
• Each University involved in the project presents to the all-Russia jury via e-mail (email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org) the list of contest participants at the university contest level with the themes of their papers (there should be not less than 10 participants at each University) and 3 best papers chosen by the University jury
• The papers submitted to the all-Russia contest should be 15-20 pages long (one-and-half-spaced, font 14)
• Not less than 2 titles from the American Shelves list of books should be used in each paper
• Both content of the papers and their meeting the requirements of Research Paper Documentation (Bibliography Listing and In-text Citation) will be judged by the Jury
RULES OF CITATION
In writing your paper, you are free to use facts and opinions found in books. You can use the actual language, or you can summarize the material in your own words. In either case, you are obligated to document the borrowed ideas or information, i.e. you have to DOCUMENT YOUR PAPER. Documentation – acknowledgement of indebtedness to a source – is of two general types:
1. A list of the sources used in a paper, which serves as a general acknowledgment of indebtedness to each. It is headed WORKS CITED and follows the final page of the text. (More about it in: Listing Sources).
2. Separate citation of each borrowed fact or opinion. The source and the page reference are enclosed in parentheses and follow the borrowed material: e.g. (Sigel 124). (More about it in In-text Citation).
All sources from which material has been borrowed are listed alphabetically on the final page or pages of a paper. Various headings can be used for this listing —References, Sources, Literature Cited, Bibliography—but Works Cited is recommended. Bibliography, formerly in general use, is not altogether accurate because the word literally means "writing of books," and most research papers involve periodicals and other nonbook sources. If you have an unusually large number of sources, you can divide them into separately alphabe¬tized sections such as Books and Periodicals or Primary Sources and Secondary Sources.
Do not be intimidated by the number of examples in this chapter. If you master the basic forms for books and periodicals (examples 1 and 2), you can adapt them to any sources that deviate from the norm.
An entry for a book or a periodical consists of three basic elements: author, title, and publication data. They are separated by a period and two spaces.
Most of the variables, especially for periodicals, occur in the publication data. You should have little difficulty in devising sensible forms for unusual sources if you maintain the same sequence of elements, omit what is not available, and add in the appropriate place supplementary information like an editor's name or the name of a series. Such information is also followed by a period and two spaces.
Some special problems that may prove troublesome appear in the following list. Each is keyed to the example where it is briefly explained.
Sidel, Ruth. On Her Own: Growing Up in the Shadow of
the Ameri¬can Dream. New York: Viking, 1990.
Taylor, Irene. Holy Ghosts: The Male Muses of Emily and
Charlotte Bronte. New York: Columbia UP, 1990.
Walsh, William. Indian Literature in English. Longman
Literature in English Series. London: Longman,
Russell, William Howard. My Diary: North and South.
a. Reverse or hanging indentation (five spaces) makes it easier for a reader to locate an item in an alphabetized list.
b. The author's name is inverted for alphabetization. It should be written as it appears on the title page: Lewis, C. S., not Lewis, Clive Staples. The name is followed by a period and two spaces.
c. Copy the title from the title page, not from the cover or the spine of a book. The title of a book or of any work published as a unit is underlined — the equivalent of italics in typeset material. Continuous underlining (The Sound and the Fury) is sensible. Omitted underlining is such a common fault in papers that it might be advisable to backspace and underline a title immediately after typing it instead of waiting until you finish a sentence. The title is followed by a period and two spaces.
d. A subtitle is also underlined. It is separated from the main title by a colon even if no colon appears in the original.
e. The title of a series (see the third example) is not underlined or placed within quotation marks.
f. If more than one city is listed on the title page, cite only the first one. Include the state or country only when absolutely necessary. A university press, even if it is located in a small town, does not require the designation of a state.
g. Publishers' names are shortened. University Press is abbreviated UP, written without periods. The letters are placed where they occur in the official name of the press.
h. It is not necessary to cite the publisher of a work published before 1900 (see the fourth example).
i. Cite the year of publication from the title page if one appears there. Otherwise, look on the reverse of the title page, where you may find a confusing jumble of numbers. If there are several copyright dates, cite the most recent one. If there have been several printings of the edition you are using, cite the earliest one.
Clark, Suzanne. "Bernard Malamud in Oregon."
American Scholar 59 (1990): 67-79.
Roschwalb, Susanne A. "Corporate Eyes on the
Market: Funding the Arts for the 1990s."
Journal of Arts Management and Law 19.4
Hehir, J. Bryan. "Papal Foreign Policy."
Foreign Policy. No. 78 (1990): 26-48.
Allen, Paul H., and Dominic J. Casserley. "C
and I Lending: Turning the Corner in
Economic Returns." Bankers Magazine
January/February 1990: 36-44.
Lacargo, Richard. "Under Fire." Time 29 Jan. 1990: 16-21.
a. The foregoing examples illustrate entries for quarterly journals and bimonthly, monthly, and weekly magazines. Although the form differs somewhat, the order is the same for each: Author. Title. Publication data.
b. The title of an article, like all portions of published units, is enclosed in quotation marks. A subtitle is treated the same as in the listing for a book—it is separated from the title by a colon.
c. An initial "The" as in Atlantic can be dropped. (This is not done with book titles.) Otherwise, write a title as it appears on the cover of the periodical (e.g., there is no apostrophe after "Bankers" in the fourth example).
d. No punctuation follows the name of a periodical. Most quarterlies are paged contin¬uously throughout a volume as in the first example. Cite the volume number (an arabic numeral without the abbreviation "vol."), enclose the year of publication in parentheses, follow it with a colon, and give the inclusive page numbers (not just the pages used in your paper).
e. For a quarterly paged separately in each issue, follow the same form but add a period and the issue number after the volume number with no space between them. The issue is usually identified on the cover of a journal or on the contents page. See the second example. A quarterly that has no volume number is identified by the number of the issue. See the third example.
f. For a bimonthly, monthly, or weekly magazine, give the date immediately after the name of the magazine. Follow it with a colon and the page numbers.
g. The abbreviations "p." and "pp." are not used; it is understood that the numbers to the right of the colon are page numbers.
A Critical Fable. Boston: Houghton, 1922.
Tour Book: Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina. Falls Church: American Automobile Assn., 1987.
"The Phil Thrill." New Yorker 19 Feb. 1990: 34-35.
When a work is published without an author's name, begin the entry with the title. If you wish to identify the author, do so in the text of your paper or write the name in brackets before the title. Alphabetize an anonymous work according to its title. Do not use the word "Anonymous" unless it appears on the title page.
Lentricchia, Frank, and Thomas McLaughlin, eds.
Critical Terms for Literary Study. Chicago: U of
Chicago P, 1990.
Meyers, Jeffrey, ed. Graham Greene: A Revaluation. New
York: St. Martin's, 1990.
Begin the citation of an anthology or any similar collection of pieces by various authors with the name of the editor or editors.
When you are documenting the paper for the first time, you will find the most drastic innovation to be in-text or parenthetical citation. It is also the most efficient timesaver. To identify a source, type the first main word in the list of works cited (usually the author's last name) and the page reference in parentheses immediately after the borrowed material. Thus, a reader can easily identify a reference by consulting the list of works cited. If you identify a source in the text, cite only the page reference in parentheses. If you cite an entire work in the text, no parenthetical citation is necessary, but the work will, of course, be listed in Works Cited. A citation should be placed where there is a pause, preferably at the close of a sentence. It follows the borrowed material and precedes your own punctuation.
Facts that are common knowledge—for example, Shakespeare's birthplace, the date of the attack on Pearl Harbor, or the capital of Iowa—need not be cited even if you did not know them before. Otherwise, you are obligated to acknowledge material taken from any source except your own mind and imagination, whether it is a direct quotation, a summary of an author's opinion, or a factual statement. If you are in doubt as to whether a citation is needed, it is best to include one. An in-text citation reduces the possibility of unintentional plagiarism, which sometimes ruins an otherwise good paper.
As with bibliographic entries, if you master basic forms for citing books and periodicals, you can adapt them to variant sources. The kinds of sources most likely to be cited are illustrated on the following pages.
Author and page number in parentheses:
"Child abuse and neglect are often thought of as problems of the poor and near-poor. They are, of course, problems of families at all economic levels" (Sidel 212).
Note that there is no comma between the author's name and the page reference and that the citation precedes the period.
Author cited in the text, page number in parentheses:
According to Irene Taylor, Emily Bronte "formed few human attachments, and expressed increasing hostility and contempt for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social" (11)
Entire work cited in the text:
William Howard Russell, a British journalist, toured the United States and described conditions in the North and the South at the outbreak of the Civil War.
Author and page number in parentheses:
"There may be no other society in which guns enjoy such a deeply embedded prestige or such enduring glamour" (Lacargo 16).
Author cited in text, page number in parentheses:
In the past, according to Robert Karen, "Families were stationary, interdependent, and surrounded by relatives, from grandmothers to adolescent aunts, who all pitched in with baby care".
Entire work cited in the text:
Suzanne Clark suggests that Bernard Malamud enjoyed his years at Oregon State University, where his memory is still honored.
In A Critical Fable, published anonymously by Amy Lowell, she satirized Robert Frost as "a foggy benignity wandering in space / With a stray wisp of moonlight just touching his face" (21).
Every February second, Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, receives national attention as crowds gather to watch the groundhog "Punxsutawney Phil" emerge from his hole ("The Phil Thrill").
In the first example, an anonymous author is identified in the text. Note also that a slash separating two lines of poetry is preceded and followed by a space. When the identity of an author is not known, as in the second example, include the title in the citation.
Critical essays assembled by Jeffrey Meyers emphasize Graham Greene's Catholicism.
Over 11 million Americans have diabetes, and the number is increasing because the disease usually develops in later life and people today live longer (American Diabetes Assn. 12).
The American Diabetes Association reports that over 11 million Americans have diabetes and the number is increasing because the disease usually develops in later life and people today live longer (12).
Both of these forms are correct, but the second one is preferred. If the name of a corporate author is so long that it results in a cumbersome citation, it should be identified in the text. Note that "Association" is abbreviated in the citation but not in the text.
Rep. McCollum proposed a "point of purchase fingerprint system"to control the sale of firearms (Cong. Rec. 7 Feb. 1990: H341).
The chief difference between a stenographer and a typist is that the former occupation involves taking and transcribing dictation (Area Wage Survey 22-23).
Michael Manley favors a Caribbean stock exchange to encourage economic development of the region.
Writing "teaches you the recognition of things in your life that you remember, but you might not have recognized their portent" (Welty 84).
According to Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Fanny Kemble found that "American women, although beautiful, are insufferably dressed and speak in shrill, grating voices" (Foreword xvii).
Note that the identifying term is included in the citation.
The Court of Appeals found the 365-year sentence for espionage harsh but "not disproportionate to Whitworth's crimes" (US v. Whitworth 1289).
The name of the case identifies the entry in Works Cited.
On 5 June 1914, Henry James wrote Edith Wharton describing a house that she might rent: "It was much modernized and bath-roomed some few years back—not, doubtless, on the American scale; but very workably and conveniently" (287).
"There may be changes in the quality of Jewish life, particularly in its religious dimensions, but increases in intermarriage rates do not by themselves testify to instability in the American Jewish community" Goldscheider 54).
According to Judge Thomas A. Demakos, the murder of Michael Griffith showed "a depraved indifference for human life" (Hynes and Drury 302).
In the Mainstream Assistance Teams (MAT) Project, consultants worked with teachers of DTT (difficult to teach) students (Fuchset al., 264).
No comma is necessary after the name of an author or editor when it is followed by "et al." (and others). A comma separates "et al." and a page reference.
It required much persuasion by Faulkner's family and friends to convince him that he should go to Stockholm to accept the Nobel Prize (Blotner 2: 1341-49).
"Whitman knew and loved precisely the authors he attacked most— Shakespeare, Scott, Tennyson, and Carlyle" (Wellek 4: 196).
In 1799 Hamilton worked with Aaron Burr to form the Manhattan Company that would supply New York with water and also to organize a bank (Papers 22: 446-49).
Volume and page numbers are separated by a colon.
Prince Charles asked builders to reduce their use of tropical woods (St. Louis Post-Dispatch 4A).
According to Jay Matthews, 280,000 gallons of oil formed a slick off the southern California coast.
An editorial in the New York Times argues that universities "are bound by the same rules for producing evidence that govern investigations of any other employer" (A22).
Newspaper materials vary so widely that improvisation is often necessary. The first example is an unsigned, untitled item, and so the name of the newspaper is necessary. In the second example, the author is identified in the text; in the third example, the name of the newspaper is identified.
According to Powrie V. Doctor, a deaf person's voice always has "a flat, robotlike quality" (8: 560).
Sign language is described as "a delicately nuanced combination of coded manual signals reinforced by facial expression and perhaps augmented by words spelled out in a manual alphabet" ("Sign Language").
Alexander Graham Bell was a vigorous proponent of oralism, "the theory or practice of teaching deaf people to communicate primarily or exclusively through lip-reading and speaking rather than signing" ("Oralism").
When citing a reference work, give enough information to enable your reader to identify the source. Page references are usually not necessary in a work that is alphabetically arranged, but the Americana article in the first example is six pages long, making it troublesome for a reader to locate the quotation.
Robert Mason found Sallie Bingham's account of her family to be weakened by her "radical feminism" (179).
Benedict Nightingale analyzes reasons that Neil Simon's plays do not appeal to British audiences.
"Tandy and Freeman achieve a beautiful equilibrium. And Dan Aykroyd comes through with a fine performance as Miss Daisy's good-old-boy son" (New Yorker 31).
Selection in an Anthology
William M. Chase considers The Human Factor Graham Greene's "most fulfilling treatment of the theme of espionage and authority" (171).
Works by the Same Author
When World War One began, Russian officers expected to be in Berlin within six weeks, and German officers expected to be in Paris (Tuchman, Guns 119).
If you use two or more works by the same author or editor, you must include the title in a citation. Author and title are separated by a comma. A title can be shortened to a key word or phrase.
EXPLANATION AND REFERENCE NOTES
The major use of notes is citation—identifying the sources of borrowed material. As you have no doubt observed during your research, however, notes can also serve two other functions: supplying additional information (explanation notes) and suggesting additional sources (reference notes). Many students ignore such notes when doing research, but they can be very helpful. They may contain facts or opinions that relate to your thesis, or they may furnish useful leads to other sources.
1. Explanation notes contain information that pertains to some aspect of a topic but is not directly relevant to the thesis. They should be used sparingly in most student papers because, in general, if something does not pertain to the thesis, it does not belong in the paper. But if you want to include an amusing or interesting sidelight on your topic, consider putting it in an explanation note. Such notes can also be a convenient way of identifying individuals or events and of defining terms.
2. Reference notes direct the reader to another page of your paper or, more often, to a book or an article. A source that supports your statement is usually introduced by See also; one that contradicts or contrasts with your statement is usually introduced by Compare.
The two types of notes are often combined: A note contains a comment and also cites one or more sources. Sources cited in notes are, of course, included in Works Cited.
To write a note of either kind, type a numeral (a superscript) in the text a half-space above the line; a corresponding number, elevated a half-space and followed by a horizontal space, precedes the note. In the text a note number follows any punctuation mark except a dash. The procedure for writing notes is described more fully in the next section and is illustrated in the second sample paper. Notes can be written at the bottom of the page as footnotes or, preferably, on a separate page headed Notes and placed after the text but before the Works Cited page. A brief reference (see Gross ch. 6) can be made in the text, but if the reference is long enough to impede the sentence flow, it should be written as a reference note. Many student papers contain neither explanation nor reference notes.
(Abridged from: Coyle, William. Research Papers. New York: Macmillan, 1992: 204-211, 216)